Atlantis will deliver supplies and spare parts to the space station, and pick up a broken pump and transport it back to Earth for inspection, NASA said on its website.
The crews of Atlantis and the space station will also research the potential for a space refueling system.
Space shuttle Atlantis lifted off Friday morning on the last mission of America's 30-year shuttle program, a thunderously poignant moment that drew people from around the world to watch.
Some of the thousands of onlookers chanted "USA." Others shed tears as Atlantis roared aloft atop its powerful rockets on what a NASA commentator called a "sentimental journey into history."
"Godspeed, Atlantis," read a sign held up by a member of the ground crew who sealed the shuttle's hatch for the last time.
Inside the launch control room, even normally sober engineers acknowledged choking up.
Sunday's docking and the joining of Atlantis' four-member crew with that of the space station is scheduled for 11:06 a.m. ET, according to NASA. The four astronauts aboard the Atlantis are Cmdr. Chris Ferguson, Doug Hurley, Sandra Magnus and Rex Walheim.
Atlantis' total mission was originally planned to last 12 days from liftoff to landing, but NASA will likely try to extend the mission by one day, said Mike Gerstenmaier, the associate administrator.
The possibility of storms had raised doubt about whether the launch would take place, but NASA gave the shuttle a "go" for launch a few minutes before liftoff.
A slight drop in cabin pressure as the shuttle climbed into the sky raised an alarm, but engineers attributed it to normal expansion that allowed some oxygen to escape. It wasn't dangerous, but it added an extra measure of excitement for the crew, said Mike Leinbach, the launch director.
President Richard Nixon commissioned the space shuttle program in 1972, three years after the Apollo program put a man on the moon.
The first shuttle, Columbia, blasted off in April 1981. Since then, space shuttle crews have fixed satellites, performed scientific studies, and ferried materials and people to International Space Station Alpha, a football field-sized construction project in orbit.
In 134 missions, the five space shuttles have ferried 355 astronauts half a billion miles in space, turning heroic feats into the routine.
When Atlantis lands, it will leave the United States with no way to lift humans into space for the first time in decades. NASA will rely on the Russian space agency to ferry U.S. astronauts to orbit.